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Contents © 2020 Golan Levin and Collaborators

Golan Levin and Collaborators

Catalogues and Lists

A Bibliography of Synesthesia and Phonesthesia Research

Compiled by Shelly Wynecoop and Golan Levin
Interval Research Corporation, July 1996

This bibliography was used in the development of: Wynecoop, Shelly. "Phonesthetic 'Pointiness' in the Auditory and Visual Modalities". Unpublished Masters' thesis, University of Chicago, 1998.

This bibliography treats the topics of synaesthesia and multi-modal cognition as they are discussed in the research literatures of cognitive science, linguistics and experimental psychology. The bibliography has a particular emphasis on phonesthesia (also called phonetic symbolism, sound symbolism, or linguistic iconism), which is a cross-modal mapping that occurs between the perception or production of spoken phonemes, and some other cognitive domain such as shape or color. The bibliography was originally compiled for a project at Interval Research Corporation in 1996, and in its present state contains references up to that date. It is arranged alphabetically by author.

Keywords: bibliography, synesthesia, synaesthesia, phonesthesia, phonaesthesia, phonestheme, phonetic symbolism, sound symbolism, linguistic iconism, chromesthesia, chromaesthesia, cross-modal mapping, multi-modal mapping, references, articles.

Alphabetic index by author:

Related resources online:
Linguistic Iconism Association
Phonosemantics and Linguistic Iconism Web Sites
Leonardo Bibliography of Synesthesia in Art and Science
Sean Day's Synesthesia Bibliography


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Allport, G.W. (1935). Phonetic Symbolism in Hungarian Words. Unpublished manuscript, Harvard.

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Arnheim, R. (1972). Toward a Psychology of Art: Collected Essays. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

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Brown, R.W., Black, A.H., & Horowitz, A.E. (1955). Phonetic Symbolism in Natural Languages. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 50, 388-393.

Brown, R.W. (1958). Words and Things. New York: Free Press.

Brown, R.W., & Nuttal, R. (1959). Method in Phonetic Symbolism Experiments. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 59, 441-445.


Calkins, M.W. (1893). A Statistical Study of Pseudo-Chromesthesia and of Mental Forms. American Journal of Psychology, 5, 439-464.

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Castel, L.-B. (1740). L'Optique des Couleurs, Fondée sur les Simples Observations, et Tournée sur-tout a la Pratique de la Peinture, de la Teinture et des Autres Arts Coloristes. Paris: Briasson.

Chastaing, M. (1958). Le Symbolisme des Voyelles: Significations des 'i' I & II. Journal de Psychologie, 55, 402-423; 461-481.

Chastaing, M. (1960). Audition Colorée: Une Enquête. Vie et Langage, 105, 631-637.

Chastaing, M. (1961). Des Sons et des Couleurs. Vie et Langage, 112, 358-365.

Chastaing, M. (1962). La Brilliance des Voyelles. Archivum Linguisticum, 14, 1-13.

Chastaing, M. (1964). L'Opposition des Consonnes Sourdes aux Consonnes Sonores et Muettes: A-T'elle une Valeur Symbolique? Vie et Langage, 147, 367-370.

Chastaing, M. (1965). Dernieres Recherches sur le Symbolisme Vocalique de la Petitesse. Revue Philosophique, 155, 41-56.

Chastaing, M. (1965). Pop - fop - pof - fof. Vie et Langage, 159, 311-317.

Chastaing, M. (1966). Si les 'R' étainent des 'L' (Part I). Vie et Langage, 173, 468-472.

Chastaing, M. (1966). Si les 'R' étainent des 'L' (Part II). Vie et Langage, 174, 502-507.

Childers, T.L., & Houston, M.J. (1984). Conditions for a Picture-Superiority Effect on Consumer Memory. Journal of Consumer Research, 11, 643-654.

Chomsky, N., & Halle, M. (1965). Some Controversial Questions in Phonological Theory. Journal of Linguistics, 1, 97-138.

Churchill, A.V. (1960). Tactual and Visual Interpolation: A Cross-Modal Comparison. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 14, 183.

Claparede, E. (1900). Sur l'Audition Colorée. Revue Philosophique, 49, 515-517.

Claparede, E. (1903). Persistance de l'Audition Colorée. Comptes Rendus de la Société du Biologie, 55, 1257-1259.

Clark, H.H., & Brownell, H.H. (1975). Judging Up and Down. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1, 339-352.

Clark, H.H., & Brownell, H.H. (1976). Position, Direction, and their Perceptual Integrity. Perception and Psychophysics, 19, 328-334.

Clark, A. (1993). Sensory Qualities. Oxford, England: Clarendon.

Claviere, J. (1898). L'Audition Colorée. L'Année Psychologique, 5, 161-178.

Cohen, N.E. (1934). Equivalence of Brightnesses Across Modalities. American Journal of Psychology, 46, 117.

Collins, M. (1929). A Case of Synaesthesia. Journal of General Psychology, 2, 12-27.

Colman, W.S. (1894). On So-Called 'Colour Hearing'. The Lancet, 795-796.

Comalli, E.E. Jr. (1960). Studies in Physiognomic Perception VI: Differential Effects of Directional Dynamics of Pictorial Objects on Real and Apparent Motion in Artists and Chemists. Journal of Psychology, 49, 99-109.

Coriat, I.H. (1913). A Case of Synesthesia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 8, 38-43.

Coriat, I.H. (1913). An Unusual Case of Synesthesia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 8, 109-112.

Cowden, J.E., et. al. (1986). Sensory Integration in Developmentally Delayed Preschool Children. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 3(1), 22-34.

Cowen, P.S. (1984). Film and Text: Order Effects in Recall and Social Interferences. Educational Communications and Technology Journal, 32, 131-144.

Cutsforth, T.D. (1924). Synaesthesia in the Process of Reasoning. American Journal of Psychology, 35, 88-.

Cutsforth, T.D. (1925). The Role of Emotion in a Synaesthetic Subject. American Journal of Psychology, 36, 527-.

Cutsforth, T.D., & Wheeler, R.H. (1928). Synaesthesia in Judging and Choosing. Journal of General Psychology, 1, 497-519.

Cytowic, R.E., & Wood, F.B. (1982). Synesthesia I: A Review of Major Theories and their Brain Bases. Brain and Cognition, 41, 23-35.

Cytowic, R.E., Stump, D.A., & Larned, D.C. (1988). Closed Head Trauma: Cognitive, Somatic and Ophthalmic Sequellae in Nonhospitalized Patients. In H.A. Whitaker (Ed.), Neuropsychological Studies of Nonfocal Brain Damage, 226-264. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Cytowic, R.E. (1989). Synesthesia and Mapping of Subjective Sensory Dimensions. Neurology, 39(6), 849-850.

Czurda, M. (1953). Beziehungen zwischen Lautcharakter und Sinneseindrüken. Wiener Archiv für Psychologie, Psychiatrie, und Neurologie, 3, 73-84.


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Glicksohn, J. (1992). An Exploratory Study of Syncretic Experience: Eidetics, Synaesthesia and Absorption. Perception, 21(5), 637-642.

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Grafé, A. (1898). Su un Cas a Rattacher a Ceux d'Audition Colorée. Revue de Médecine, 18, 225-228.

Grammont, M. (1901). Onomatopées et Mots Expressifs. Paper presented at the Trentenaire de la Société pour l'Étude des Langues Romanes, Montpellier.

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Thanks to Andrea Boykowycz for her help in recovering and transcribing this document.